What are handicrafts?
Handicrafts refer to a set of arts and crafts; Which are mainly made using local raw materials and performing some of the basic production steps with the help of hands and hand tools. In each unit of handicrafts, the artistic taste and intellectual creativity of the craftsman is manifested in a way and this factor is the main difference between such products and similar machine and factory products.
Features & Properties
According to the aforementioned definition and other definitions provided for handicrafts, the following characteristics can be considered for handmade products:
1. Performing some of the basic stages of production, by hand and tools and hand tools, to produce each of the hand products goes through several stages. However, it is not necessary to perform all these steps by hand, tools and hand tools, and if only part of the basic production steps is done in this way, the product is considered handicrafts.
2. Effective and creative human presence in the production and shaping of manufactured products and the possibility of creating variety and implementing different designs in the manufacturing phase of such products.
3. Supplying most of the raw materials used from domestic sources.
4. Having a cultural burden (using original, indigenous, and traditional designs).
5. Lack of similarity and similarity of manufactured products with each other.
6. Having a lot of added value compared to other industries.
Regarding handicrafts classification, it should be said that this classification can be done in different ways, including based on raw materials used or the method and method of making it.
Here is the classification made by the experts of the Iranian Handicrafts Organization, which is mainly based on the method and technique of making such products:
1. Weaves: Products that are produced with the help of horizontal or vertical weights located on the ground at the time of weaving, are weaves such as carpets, kilims, Zillow, and the like.
2. Handmade: (Traditional textile): Products that are produced with the help of simple and traditional knitting machines (special machine for weaving Jajim, two-piece machine, four-piece machine, and hand jacquard), are considered hand-made, such as Jajim, Zari, cashmere, Shawl.
Among the characteristics of this field of handicrafts are: First, all three stages of knitting, spinning, weaving, and bookbinding (it is a metal tool, with a handle similar to a comb that weavers hold in their hands when weaving the fabric and tie it to the threads so that what is woven is joined and tightened) are all carried out with hand and foot movements. Secondly, it is possible to use colored fabrics to an unlimited extent, as well as the variety of texture designs by having control over the movements of the words, which indicates the effective and creative presence of humans in production.
3. Knitting: All kinds of artifacts that are produced with the help of desire, hooks, and the like and with natural fibers, are considered as part of knitting, such as gloves, socks, hats, scarves, etc.
4. Embroidered (Roudozi): All artifacts created by sewing traditional patterns on patterned fabrics or pulling a piece of warp and weft yarn; such as needle embroidery, crochet embroidery, tapestry embroidery, Khosdozi, Golabtondozi, Petedozi, and so on.
5. Traditional prints: All fabrics that are painted and embossed by brush, stamp, and the like are considered as part of traditional prints, such as pen printing and bat printing.
6. Felt: Types of artifacts that are produced by kneading in suitable technical conditions due to the conflict and compaction of wool and fluff; such as felted hat, felted coat, felted undergarment, and felted paddy.
7. Pottery and ceramics: Products made using rosé mud, as well as mud from quartz stone and kaolin soil, made with the help of pottery hands and wheels and then baked, are called pottery and ceramics.
To complete the made objects, according to tradition, they create paintings, carvings, or reliefs on them; And a suitable glaze is used to cover the surface of objects. The products produced by this group include all kinds of pitchers and glasses for tableware, vases, etc.
8. Glassmaking: Products that are obtained by forming molten minerals such as silica and shards of glass, which are a combination of the two and by blowing utilizing a special tube and by using hand tools (including pliers, scissors, etc.), which includes complementary and decorative steps, such as painting and cutting.
9. Production of leather and leather products: Products that are produced using traditional tanned leather and leather, such as fur, leather hats, lighters, leather complementary products (such as combining leather with handmade products).
10. Metal and alloy products: Products that are traditionally produced using hand tools and various metals (copper, silver, gold, and iron) and alloys (Brass and Nickel silver); such as all kinds of household utensils, knives, sugar crushers, pens, locks and so on.